Construction, Civil Engineering Projects:
Construction Civil Engineering projects include a series of activities which, when they are carried out in the planned manner will lead to the completion of the project. Construction Projects are temporary, generally resulting in the making of a tangible structure or product. A construction project including industrial projects involves five important steps: initiation, planning, implementation, performance and monitoring, and handing over.
Types of Civil Engineering Projects:
In the construction industry, Civil Engineering projects are different –
- Infrastructure Project: Infrastructure development projects which include the construction of roads, bridges, railway, airports, mass rapid transport system ( MRTS) etc.,
- Marine Projects: Marine Projects includes the development of Port and harbour, construction of jetty, berth, dolphins, docks etc.
- Building Projects: Building Projects includes mass housing for residential need and commercial purpose.
- Irrigation Projects: Irrigation Projects includes dams, barrage, aqueduct, canals, super-passage etc.
- Industrial Projects: Industrial Projects includes power plants, steel plants, fertilizer plants, petrochemical and refineries, cement plants, aluminium plants etc.
The above classification is not a heavenly one but has been made for better understanding the various major fields of Construction Industry.
Industrial projects are units/industries which are set up with an objective to manufacture different finished products, Required for the fulfilment of the basic requirements for other projects and utilities.
Top 5 Industrial Projects in India:
Power Plant Project:
A power plant or a power generating station is an industrial projects structure used for producing electricity on a mass scale, and after production, transmitted and distributed to consumers through different power station/network called power grid system.
For more details: “What is Power Plants? – Types – Components & Construction Guide.”
Steel Plant Project:
Construction of steel plant with all necessary structure is under industrial projects. The steelmaking industry is the bedrock underpinning all other sectors. The steel plant is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel. It may be an integrated steel plant(ISP) or Alloy Steel Plant(ASP). An integrated steel plant has all the following functions for primary steel production:
- Ironmaking: Conversion of iron ore to liquid iron
- Steelmaking: Reformation of pig iron to liquid steel
- Casting: Solidification of the liquid steel
- Roughing rolling/billet rolling: Reducing the size of blocks
- Product rolling: Finished shapes
For more details: “What is Integrated Steel Plants? – Steel Production – Source Approval.”
Fertilizer Plant Industrial Projects:
Fertilizer Industry, the sector plays a vital part in the growth of our country. It is a crucial sector and makes an indispensable contribution to GDP. In India, the fertilizer industry is essential as it manufactures some of the essential raw materials which are required for crop production. The prime objective of this industry is to ensure the inflow of both primary and secondary elements as are necessary for crop production in the desired quantities.
For agricultural growth of a country, fertilizer Plants are equally required. Reports say, approximately there are more than 55 large and 65 medium and small fertilizer production plants under the India fertilizer industry.
Construction of fertilizer plant is under industrial projects and consists of the following structures/elements.
- Compressor House.
- Reformer Foundations.
- Cooling Tower & Cooling Tower sumps.
- Naptha foundations.
- GV section.
- Prilling Tower.
- Bagging Plant.
- Captive Power Plant.
Top 10 Indian Fertilizer Companies:
|1||Coromandel International Limited||Telangana|
|2||Deepak Fertilisers and Petrochemicals Corporation Limited||Maharashtra|
|3||Fertilisers And Chemicals Travancore Limited (FACT)||Kerela|
|4||Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GNFC)||Gujarat|
|5||Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GSFC)||Gujarat|
|6||Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Limited (HFCL)||New Delhi|
|7||Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited (IFFCO)||New Delhi|
|8||Krishak Bharati Cooperative Limited (KRIBHCO)||Uttar Pradesh|
|9||Madras Fertilizers Limited||Chennai|
|10||Chambal Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited||New Delhi|
Cement Plant Project:
As per the present scenario, cement is another basic ingredient for infrastructural and industrial growth.
In India, a total of 210 large cement plants having a combined capacity of 410 MT and 350 small cement plants make up for the rest demand.
Major structures of Cement plant, industrial projects construction are as follows.
- Captive Power Plant.
- Raw Material Handling system.
- Storage Silo.
- Clinker Plant.
- Grinding Plant.
- Roaster Plant.
- Bagging Plant.
Top 10 Cement Companies in India:
|SL No||Name||Capacity (MTPA)|
|1||UltraTech Cement Ltd||102.75|
|2||Ambuja Cements Ltd||29.65|
|4||Shree Cement Ltd||29.30|
|5||Dalmia Bharat Ltd||26.50|
|8||The Ramco Cements Limited||16.00|
|6||Birla Corporation Limited||15.50|
|7||India Cements Ltd||15.00|
|9||Orient Cement Ltd||8.00|
|10||HeidelbergCement India Ltd||5.40|
Aluminium Plant Project:
After steel aluminium is the most used metal in the world, the rise in infrastructure development and automotive production are encouraging growth in the aluminium industry in India.
There are several aluminium plants in India, the majority of which are dominated by the top players in the Indian aluminium industry like HINDALCO, NALCO, BALCO, and MALCO etc.
Most essential structures in an Aluminum Plant are as per the following:
- Pot Lines.
- Bake Oven.
- Carbon Shop.
- Rodding Shop.
- Anode Storage.
- Cast House.
- Maintenance Shop.
- Ware House.
- Captive Power Plant.
In Aluminum Plant, maximum depth of foundation is restricted to 5 meters in all the areas mentioned above. The superstructure is constructed with structural steel with a height of 25m (max.), and the top is covered with metal deck sheets.
Top 5 Aluminium Plants in India:
|SL No||Name||Capacity, Location|
|1||HINDALCO||242,000 MT, Uttar Pradesh|
|2||BALCO||100,000 MT, Chandigarh|
|3||NALCO||230,000 MT, Orissa|
|4||INDAL||110,000 MT, Kerala|
|5||MALCO||30,000 MT, Tamil Nadu|
General Construction Methodology:
- In all the above industrial sectors, piling may be necessary according to the soil condition.
- The projects are involved with mass concreting (RCC) and the huge involvement of structural steelworks.
- Precision and precaution both are required during concreting of different equipment foundations, and in case of any discrepancy between civil & mechanical drawing, it is preferable to follow the mechanical drawing to match with the layout & direction of the equipment which will be installed on the foundation.
- Also, safety is one of the areas of concern, for which special care is required to be taken as in most of the industrial structures work is executed at high elevation (For example, in a Thermal Power Plant, the height of Chimney is 220 meters, the height of Boiler is 80 meters, the height of Bunker is 60 meters etc.)
- A lot of finishing activity is also involved like flooring, painting, sheeting, cladding, false ceiling, aluminium etc. after the structure is completed.
Successful execution of industrial projects are mainly dependent on
- Proper planning
- Study the drawings in advance — General Arrangement drawings, foundation drawings, equipment drawings, architectural drawings etc.
- Regular coordination with different vendors, labour contractors & sub-contractors.
- Timely resource mobilization
- To assess the construction hazards caused due to interfacing activity with other agencies.