What is Concreting ?

Concrete is a heterogeneous mixture of cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate(sand) and water. In addition to the above, concrete needs the use of special materials, which is admixture to reduce the water-cement ratio of the mix. Mineral or chemical admixtures are generally used for construction as per requirement. Nowadays, concrete is the most used construction material throughout the world. Before the start of concreting in construction projects, there must be proper planning and a checklist which have to follow.

Also, Read: Concrete Ingredients – Important Properties and Tests

concreting work
Concreting Work – Batching Plant

Also, Read: Factors Affecting Strength of Concrete – Construction Civil

Pre-Construction Activities Before Concreting:

  • Obtain contract documents, including drawings and work programme.
  • Visit the site to ascertain the availability of access, services and space for working areas.
  • Summarize all the principal quantities for concreting in Construction Project.
  • Assess sources of materials
  • Assess the availability of the construction plant and output.

Required Technical information before construction:

  • For each mix, obtain information regarding the following:
    • Type and grade of concrete
    • Type of cement to be used for concreting in construction
    • Standard and maximum size of aggregate 
    • Minimum and maximum cement content
    • Admixtures, if any 
    • Workability 
    • Water cement ratio
  • Obtain the following information regarding concreting: 
    •  Surface finish and formwork 
    • Temporary works design to be submitted 
    •  Reinforcement
    •  Testing requirements
    •  Ancillary items 
    • Any particular restrictions/information to be provided

Also, Read: Properties of Concrete – Introduction to Good Concrete Practice

Concreting Process - Formwork Arrangements
Concreting Process – Formwork Arrangements

Also, Read: Design Mix of Concrete – Detailed Procedure With Calculation

Planning Before Start of Concreting in Construction Project:

  • Prepare a site management plan for Concreting in Construction Project
  • Design temporary works
  • Design formwork reuse system
  • Prepare test programme for approval of materials 
  • Calculate labour requirements and output targets
  • Sketch provisional site layout
  • Assess daily concrete demand
  • Assess the rate of pour for individual components

Project Decisions:

  • Output and type of batching/mixing plant for concreting in Construction Project
  • Location of plant and materials 
  • Method and capacity for transporting concrete
  • Decide upon equipment for compaction, finishing and curing
  • Location of bar bending yard/fabrication yard
  • Selecting materials control system
What is Concreting - Concrete Placing in progress
What is Concreting – Concrete Placing in progress

Also, Read: Causes, Prevention and Repair of Concrete Surface Defects

Action Before Concreting in Construction Activity:

  • Obtain technical approval for the following: 
    • Materials including mix design and sample panel
    • Temporary works design
    • Tolerances
    • Method and sequence of working
  • Before Concrete Production:
    • Calculate batch weights for concreting 
    • Arrange materials for concreting in construction
    • Arrange connection of services
    • Arrange to provide a construction plant
    • Obtain testing equipment

Initial Construction Setup After Site Occupation:

  • Establish a communication system
  • Erect. calibrate and commission concrete production plant
  • Connect water and power supply
  • Construct workshop and storage facilities
  • Organize receipt and issue arrangements for materials
  • Provide trial mixes for onsite work
  • Calibrate construction equipment
  • Organize spares and standby equipment
  • Prepare maintenance schedule for equipment 
  • Establish testing facilities
  • Confirm testing arrangements and compliance procedures with the clients
  • Preparation of a detailed work plan for each pour, including plant, labour, materials and built-in items and testing

Also, Read: Blowholes/Surface voids/Bugholes in Concrete Surface

Pre Concreting Checks in Construction:

Concreting in Construction - Planning and Execution
Concreting Pipe Line

General Inspection Before Concreting:

  • Confirm setting out has been checked 
  • Confirm earlier permanent work inspected
  • Obtain weather forecast
  • Check the adequacy of access to points of discharge and access platforms
  • Confirm readiness of batching plant
  • Check communications system
  • Confirm compliance with safety regulations
  • Confirm arrangements for transporting, placing, compacting, finishing, Curing and testing

Surfaces Check Before Concreting in Construction:

  • Falsework for:
    • Conformity with design
    • Stability
    • Rigidity
    • Pre-camber
  • Formwork for:
    • Conformity of dimensions to within allowable tolerances 
    • Strength and rigidity 
    • Correct use and number of ties
    • Provision of the surface to comply with the specification
    • Tightness and sealing of joints
    • Final clean-up before concreting
    • Arrangement for removal

Also, Read: Defects in Concrete Structure – Types – Causes and Condition Survey

what is concreting - Curing of  Concrete
What is Concreting – Curing of Concrete

Joints, Inserts and Openings Check Before Concreting in Construction:

  • Construction of joints, dowels, water bars and sliding layers
  • Inserts and box-outs for accuracy and security
  • Fixing of stop-ends
  • Arrangements for forming kickers
  • Preparation of hardened surfaces

Reinforcement check before Concreting:

  • Correct diameter, shape, type, location and cover
  • Rigidly secured
  • Surface condition
  • Use of spacers, including type and size

Site Batching and Mixing of Concrete:

  • Weigh scale calibration record
  • Material storage facilities and availability of supplies
  • Arrangement for workability control
  • Batch record cards and procedure

Check During Transportation of Concrete:

  • For the transportation system, check routes free from obstruction.

Also, Read: What is Pavement Quality Concrete? – PQC Construction Method

Concreting in Construction
Concreting in Construction – Pile Cap

Inspection during Concreting:

During the placing of concrete:

  • Adequacy of workability
  • No segregation
  • No movement of reinforcement or formwork
  • No contamination

During compaction of concrete:

  • Adequate availability of compaction equipment
  • Equipment used correctly 
  • Adequate labour available 
  • Grout tightness of formwork

During finishing of concrete:

  • Availability of sufficient tools 
  • Adequate skilled personnel available 
  • Access platforms in position 
  • Protected against physical damage

Post Concreting Checks in Construction:

Curing of Concrete:

  • Concrete is adequately and continuously protected against:
    • Loss of moisture
    • Extremes of temperature
    • Drying winds 
  • Curing procedures maintained for a specified period

Also, Read: Concrete Subbase Course – DLC Construction

Removal of Formwork and Inspection:

Removal of Formwork and Inspection

Before removing formwork:

  • Check the adequacy of concrete strength
  • Identify props to be left in place 
  • Check safety arrangements
  • Confirm arrangements for treated surface finishes and joint preparation. 
  • Obtain authority for removal of formwork and falsework

After removing formwork:

  • Compare surface finish with specification or sample and check for defects, including:
    • Segregation, honeycombing or cavities
    • Cracking
    • Misalignment or dimensions outside tolerances
    • Physical damage from stripping
  • In the event of any non-compliance:
    • Decide upon possible alternative remedial measures 
    • Obtain approval for proposals
    • Carry out any trials required
  • Used formwork panels should be inspected properly
    • Organize the collection and cleaning of all formwork and falsework items 
    • Inspect formwork and falsework to assess suitability for further reuse

Initial Sampling and Testing for Concreting in Construction:

General Quality Control checks:

  • General technical requirements from the specification for:
    • Materials to be tested
    • Properties to be measured
    • Methods of the test to be employed 
    • Rates of sampling/testing
    • Test facilities
  • Format for report forms
  • Action to be taken in the event of non-compliance
  • Open test registers

Laboratory Testing Equipment Checks:

  • For site laboratory:
    • Confirm building and services available at the start of the contract 
    • Ensure essential equipment available
    • Check equipment complies with relevant standards 
    • Check to measure equipment calibrated

Also, Read: Nondestructive Testing of Concrete – Methods & Guidelines

concreting work - Laboratory
Concreting Work – Laboratory

Construction Materials Checks:

Prior to approval:

  • Technical data on proposed sources of supply 
  • Copies of recent test certificates 
  • Samples for testing as required 
  • Samples for testing as required
  • Conduct tests required for approval 
  • Submit results and apply for approval
  • Check the suitability of water for making concrete

After approval:

  • Aggregates: 
    • Inspect each delivery to the site
    • Sample from stockpiles
  • Cement:
    • Sample from each delivery 
    • Obtain maker’s certificate
    • Sample periodically from the site store or site.
  • Concrete:
    • Agree on the place of sampling 
    • Take a sample of adequate size for all tests
    • Measure temperature
  • Other materials, including reinforcement:
    • Sample at agreed rates
    • Obtain maker’s certificates

Also, Read: Rusting of Iron Rebar in Concrete – Special Repairing

concreting work - laboratory tests
Concreting Work – Laboratory Tests

Final Testing of Construction Material:

  • For Aggregates:
    • Carry out tests as required
    • Submit reports 
    • Complete test register
  • For Concrete:
    • Carry out tests on fresh concrete as required 
    • Prepare specimens as required for strength tests
    • Cure in the manner specified
    • Measure density and conduct strength tests
    • Submit reports
    • Complete test register

Quality Control for Concreting in Construction:

  • Calculate statistical data
  • Prepare quality control charts
  • Recommend changes to mixes and materials if appropriate
  • Undertake non-destructive tests on finished work if required.

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Concreting in Construction - Planning and Execution
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Concreting in Construction - Planning and Execution
Nowadays, concrete is the most used construction materials throughout the world. Before Start of Concreting in any construction, there must be proper planning and checklist which have to follow.
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Construction Civil
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